Temporal Bone Fracture
- It is usually result of blunt head injury, generally from severe trauma. Temporal bone fractures are suggested by Battle's sign (Bluish stain on the skin behind the ear due to collection of blood) and bleeding from the ear.
- As a fracture can sometimes involve structures of middle or inner ear, symptoms like hearing loss, vertigo, balance disturbance or facial paralysis may be present.
- An ototoxic drug is any drug with the potential to cause toxic reactions to structures of inner ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, and otoliths.
- Over 100 drugs have been associated with ototoxicity, including antibiotics like streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin, chemotherapeutic drugs like cisplatin and carboplatin, diuretics like furosemide and ethacrynic acid, salicylates like aspirin, and drugs containing quinine.
- Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior.
- The child does not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs.
- It is a complex childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a child's inability to speak and communicate effectively especially in social environments, like a school.
- These children are able to speak and communicate in settings where they are comfortable, secure, and relaxed.