Before knowing the causes of Vertigo, it is important to understand its classification.
It can be classified on the basis of causes of vertigo as:
- Peripheral Vertigo
- Central Vertigo
Causes Of Vertigo Of Peripheral Type:
Peripheral Vertigo also known as Vestibular Vertigo occurs due to problems with the inner ear or the vestibular system.
- Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV):
BPPV is one of the most common causes of Vertigo. Approximately 20-40% of patients suffering from vertigo have BPPV.
The symptoms of BPPV are spinning sensation, nausea with or without vomiting, loss of balance and blurred vision.
This sensation of spinning often lasts only for a few minutes and stops eventually by itself. It comes in paroxysms i.e. it occurs suddenly and repeatedly after certain intervals of time.
The symptoms of BPPV are triggered by sudden changes in position, generally of head, e.g. rolling over in bed or tilting the head to look up.
BPPV occurs as a result of disturbance in the inner ear. Why this happens is not clearly understood, but some say it is because small crystals (probably calcium crystals) break free into the inner ear.
- Meniere's Disease:
Meniere's disease is a condition which affects the hearing and balance of an individual. This is one of the leading causes of Vertigo.
Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes severe dizziness, vertigo, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
Meniere's disease is second most common cause of vertigo, affecting approximately 0.2 - 4 % of the world population. It may occur as a result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Inflammation of the inner ear:
The following types of inflammation can figure as causes of Vertigo:
- LABRYNTHITIS: It is an inflammation of the inner ear labyrinth and the nerve that is responsible for sensing the body's motions and positioning.
- VESTIBULAR NEURONITIS: It is the inflammation of the vestibular nerve known to occur due to a viral infection.
- Infection of the inner ear:
Causes of Vertigo can also include infection with certain viruses and bacteria.
Causes Of Vertigo Of Central Type:
Central Vertigo occurs due to disturbances in the central nervous system.
Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder in which the patient suffers from recurrent, moderate to severe headache.
This type of headache has intense throbbing and pulsation at one side of the head associated with nausea and vomiting. The person is extremely sensitive to light and sound which can last for hours to days. Many people often find relief after vomiting.
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by repeated sudden episodes of convulsions, sense disturbance, loss of consciousness and vertigo.
- Cervical Spondylosis:
Cervical Spondylosis is a type of arthritis which affects the joints and disc spaces of the neck. The symptoms are pain in the neck with or without pain in the hands, tingling and numbness of hands and fingers and sometimes stiffness of the neck
Certain tumors of the brain like acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma may also figure as causes of Vertigo.
- Multiple Sclerosis:
It is a chronic, progressive disease of the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord and may often present with vertigo as the initial complaint. Other symptoms include numbness, muscular in-coordination, speech and visual disturbances and excessive fatigue.
- Parkinson's Disease:
This degenerative disorder of central nervous system is characterized muscular in-coordination and tremors and also vertigo. It is one of the prominent causes of Vertigo in old people.