Certain tests are very useful to diagnose Osteoporosis.
- Radiography (X-ray): It is the commonest test to determine Osteoporosis which can be established by thinning of the bone and presence of microfractures. Dental x-rays reveal a loss of bone in the jaw, which can be a sign of Osteoporosis.
- DEXA Scanning: Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry is the gold standard to diagnose Osteoporosis since it directly calculates the bone density. Osteoporosis is diagnosed when the bone mineral density is less than or equal to 2.5. The resultant grade is called the ‘T-Score’ and signifies whether bone density is above or below the average density for your age and gender.
The World Health Organization has established the following diagnostic guidelines-
|Normal||T-score ≥ −1.0|
|Osteopenia||−2.5 < T-score < −1.0|
|Osteoporosis||T-score ≤ −2.5|
|Severe osteoporosis||T-score ≤ −2.5 with fragility fracture|
- Laboratory tests: Certain blood tests like blood calcium, haemogram, etc. are important and may be advised by your physician.
- Advanced tests: CT Scan, MRI and Ultrasound can be advised as supporting investigations to verify the diagnosis.