Renal: refers to a condition related to kidneys.
Immune System: The system of organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to and protection from infection and toxins. Organs include thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: It is a non-invasive treatment of Kidney stones using an acoustic pulse. The lithotriptor attempts to break up the stone with minimal collateral damage by using an externally applied, focused, high-intensity acoustic pulse.
Cystoscopy: It is endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra. It is carried out with a cystoscope.
Percutaneous lithotripsy: It is a surgical procedure to remove stones from the kidney by a small puncture wound (up to about 1 cm) through the skin. It is most suitable to remove stones of more than 2 cm in size and which are present near the pelvic region. It is usually done under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia.