- Ovulation Problems: Ovulation is a process when a mature egg is released from the ovary. This egg travels through fallopian tubes. This egg needs to be fertilized by sperm for pregnancy to occur. If, there is no ovulation, there will be no chance of pregnancy. Common problems are Anovulation (absence of ovulation), poor ovarian reserve and ovarian cancer.
It can be due to hormonal imbalances as seen in Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), substance abuse, premature ovarian failure, thyroid diseases, excessive weight gain or weight loss, hypothalamic dysfunction and excess of prolactin hormone (due to dysfunction of pituitary gland, situated in brain) and extreme stress.
- Tubal factor: Fallopian tubes are tubes where egg meets sperm and gets fertilized. If both the tubes are blocked, it prevents the fertilization. Blockage of tubes can be due to many reasons including Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases, pelvic tuberculosis, pelvic surgery leading to adhesions, infections, endometriosis, scars or adhesions, history of ectopic pregnancy, congenital problem, medicines like DES (Diethylstilbestrol) and chronic illness.
- Uterine factors: Abnormal structure of uterus, presence of fibroids, polyps, endometriosis may cause infertility.
- Cervix problems: Any abnormalities in the cervical mucus, anti sperm antibodies, cervical stenosis may prevent the entry of sperms inside uterus leading to infertility.
Rare vaginal factors like vaginal obstruction can also cause Infertility in woman.
Unexplained causes: Sometimes, there could be no cause found for causing infertility.