Hoarseness of voice is due to following causes:
Misuse or overuse of voice: Speaking continuously or loudly may injure the vocal cords. Singing in an improper manner and excessive coughing may produce Hoarseness of voice.
Inhalation of hot acid fumes produces swelling and inflammation of the larynx.
- Acute laryngitis:
Viral or bacterial laryngitis produces hoarseness which usually is followed by common cold. This is temporary and the commonest cause of hoarseness of voice.
- Chronic laryngitis:
This is usually associated with smoking where there is leucoplakia of vocal cords. It is a pre-malignant condition.
- Singer's nodes or vocal cord nodules is also among the common causes of chronic hoarseness.
- Any irritant like tobacco or alcohol can cause swelling of larynx.
- Benign tumours in the form of cyst, fibromas are rare.
- Malignancy/Cancer of vocal cords produces hoarseness at the earliest. When the hoarseness does not improve within 2 weeks despite of treatment, this condition should be ruled out.
- Systemic diseases:
Hypothyroidism, Sarcoidosis, Amyloidosis, Diabetes, Sjogren's syndrome.
Diseases like myasthenia gravis, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, injury to vagus or laryngeal nerve affects the laryngeal muscles.
- Acid reflux also known as reflux laryngitis:
Acid reflux or in GERD (Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease) the acid from the stomach regurgitates and irritates the larynx. Typical symptoms of acidity are experienced.