GERD (Gastro esophageal reflux disease) or reflux esophagitis:
GERD is a very common illness affecting the digestive system of our body involving esophagus and stomach. Certain changes in the barrier between esophagus and stomach lead to abnormal relaxation of esophageal sphincter. This further cause stomach acid to go up to the food pipe which irritates the inner lining manifesting as heart burn, acid reflux, water brash and chest pain in patients.
This is a connective tissue disorder of autoimmune origin also called as systemic sclerosis .This condition involves skin, esophagus, heart, kidneys, G.I.T, lungs and internal organs. Sclerosis means hardening of tissues in the body causing fibrous thickening in the internal organs. Symptoms vary from mild to severe; and can mimic various systemic illnesses. Gastric symptoms include indigestion, dysphagia, acid reflux and hoarseness of voice which can present a picture similar to achalasia cardia.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome (Patterson brown - Kelly syndrome):
This condition also termed as sideropenic dysphagia is a rare disorder which manifests as difficulty in swallowing, iron deficiency anemia and esophageal webs. Pain in swallowing with anemia and weight loss is the common presentation observed in elderly patients. Treatment mainly targets correction of anemia and surgical removal of webs causing obstruction.
Esophageal stricture: This is a benign condition where there is narrowing of the esophagus leading to difficulty in swallowing with pain. This condition when malignant can lead to esophageal cancer. Esophageal stricture is commonly associated with other disorders like hiatus hernia, GERD, other esophageal motility disorders. Symptoms include dysphagia, vomiting of blood, indigestion, choking and weight loss.
Cancer of the esophagus or the food pipe can present in a similar way as achalasia cardia. Patient may commonly present with pain while swallowing as the first symptom; followed by dysphagia, sensation of something lodged in the throat, weight loss due to difficulty in eating and swallowing, cough and hoarseness of voice in later stages.
This is a rare parasitic infection caused by the organism trypanosoma cruzi. It is very common in tropical countries in patients residing in rural areas. Patient gets infected from this disease after getting bitten by the insect known as triatominae. Symptoms include fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, digestive disturbances like difficulty in swallowing and pain are observed in 1/3rd of patients.